Thursday, December 5, 2019
Despite being a strong believer in the barbaric practices of bloodletting and purging as a cure for yellow fever, Benjamin Rush was ahead of his time in the tremendous contributions he made to the field of medicine and in the area of social reform. . Benjamin Rush had a lifelong medical career and made enormous contributions to the field of medicine in the united States. As a boy, he entered when he was thirteen and he graduated the next year, at the age of fourteen. To further his study of medicine, he attended Edinburgh in England. Porn returning to the united States, he started to treat the poor, often for free. With a sincere desire to assist the underprivileged, he founded the first Dispensary for the Poor in America. He promoted preventive medicine like vaccination against smallpox and he knew poor dental health could cause illness. He Joined the staff of the Pennsylvania Hospital In 1783 and he reformed the care of mental patients, all people should be treated with respect and dignity. We will write a custom essay sample on Dr. Benjamin Rush or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page He published the first psychiatry textbook in America and is known as the Father of American Psychiatry.In 1789, he became a professor of medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, where he taught over 3,000 students. He worked during the yellow fever epidemic of 1793 In Philadelphia, seeing up to 120 patients a day. Although he treated patients using methods questioned by other physicians, which included bleeding and administering mercury, calmed, and clap to purge the body of the pestilence, he was considered by others to have developed a cure. Finally, in addition to treating people, he was Instrumental In establishing veterinary medicine. .Rush strongly believed in his medical practices and continued his work in the field of medicine until his death. In addition to being a renowned American physician, . Rush was also an enthusiastic patriot and leader of social reform. He helped found the first anti slavery society In America at the same time he was starting his medical career. He continued his efforts as a social activist with a long political involvement which included being an active member of the Sons of Liberty, a delegate to the Second Continental Congress, and a signer of the Declaration of Independence. After the Revolutionary War, he supported the of the constitution and he was a delegate to the Pennsylvania state convention. At the same time, he also supported the abolition of capital punishment and advocated for public education for everyone, including women. As a strong supporter of education at all levels, he founded two colleges, College and Franklin and Marshall College. In 1797, he was appointed treasurer of the U. S. Mint by John Adams as a recompense for his lifelong patriotism and he served in that position until he died.Rush was involved in a wide variety of pursuits and held many titles: statesman, ION 3 Born to a common family, Benjamin Rush had a difficult childhood but went on to have a strong married life, living in good health until his unexpected death. He was born on December 24, 1745, the fourth oldest of seven children. He lived on a plantation in Barberry, Pennsylvania. His father died when he was six and his mother ran a grocery store to support the growing family. At age eight, he was sent to live with his Aunt and Uncle in Maryland to receive a formal education.He eventually married Julia in 1776 and had thirteen children, living in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He died at the age of 67 on April 19, 1813, thirty-eight years after the first battle of the American Revolution. Benjamin Rush had an extraordinary life for which mankind must remain forever in his debt. He made amazing contributions to society that greatly helped our country. Living an extremely productive life, he tirelessly worked in both the field of medicine and in the area of promoting social reform.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Disney difference refers to a high class innovative strategy that aims at optimizing the value of contents in markets and other business platforms. It is backed by the relevant strategies that will see the Disney Company reap high profits from selling its literature.Ã The whole business strategy employs great ideas that are profit oriented.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Disney Difference Strategy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Disney Company uses the Disney difference to ensure that its products are unique and of a high quality. The videos and books produced and introduced to the market by Disney Company are highly valued by the buyers due to the employment of the Disney difference. This way the corporate image is enhanced in the market and almost the whole market remains glued to the Disney products. Thus, Disney Company ends up having the largest market share.Ã The company can charge higher prices o n their products and their customers will not complain but they will even be willing to purchase more of those items as they are the best in the market. The growth of Disney as a corporate body will be at a high rate due to the huge profits generated from the large market share associated with the company. The uniqueness of the arts brought about by the Disney difference puts them at the top of a very competitive market. Most of their competitors tend to produce normal entertainment items that have nothing new and unique while Disney does all that it can to produce unique items. This ensures that Disney Company does not suffer from the strong competitive forces in the market. Disney remains highly regarded in the market.Ã The Disney difference strategy is one of the best strategies that if guarded well by the management will see the company rise to greater heights of success. The language barrier is one of the major problems that Disney Company is likely to face as a result of int roducing the business in China and Russia. As a matter of fact, most of the inhabitants of China and Russia do not speak English while Disney Company produces and sells most of the entertainment items in English language. It will be difficult to convince non English speakers to buy English literature. To counter this challenge, Disney can engage its personnel and some few inhabitants of the two places in translating the videos and books to the native languages of the two places. This way most of the occupants of the two places will understand the literature and purchase it, otherwise the business will hit a snag.Ã Management is another major challenge that the company is likely to face as a result of introducing business in China and Russia.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The business will have expanded and the managerial team will have to do more work. Hence, the company will be forced to employ more managers to curb this problem. The new managers should be vetted to ensure they are highly skilled and should then be distributed to the new business places with at least an old manager to be their supervisor. It means that Iger views himself as the person who introduced the Disney difference policy that led to a major comeback of the Disney Company to the entertainment sector. Yes, it is part of being a strategic leader as it sets precedence for the junior managers and those to come after him. They will always try to match his shoe and that way they will formulate better policies, evaluate the effectiveness of those policies and see them implemented to the letter. This way the Disney Company will always remain at the top. This essay on The Disney Difference Strategy was written and submitted by user L1l1ana to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
INTRODUCTION The popular conception of software piracy is that it is the activity of a minority of isolated pirate-hobbyists, copying and trading software for their personal consumption. Microsoft's allegations reflect a reality that software piracy has expanded from the bedrooms of computer wiz kids to a global trade in stolen software accounting for untold billions of dollars in lost revenue to the software industry. But Microsoft's statement is even more telling, in that it indicates the impact of software piracy goes far beyond lost income for software company shareholders. It affects lost jobs in local economies, lost tax revenues to governments, and decreased quality and increased prices for consumers whether private individuals, educational institutions, or businesses. In order to study the complex problem of software piracy, we intend to conduct a five step ethical analysis. We will begin by stating the facts. We will pay close attention to who did what to whom, how much, and how much it really costs. We will also describe the economic and legal environment of the issue. Second, we will describe the conflict. We will describe the competing higher order values. Next, we will identify the stakeholders. Beyond the immediate contestants in this conflict, there are others who have a vested interested in the outcome. Fourthly, it will be necessary to define possible options to mitigate the conflict. Finally, we'll need to describe the consequences of each possible resolution, so we might arrive at a reasonable recommendation. After discussing the ethical analysis I have described the extent and nature of piracy in chapter 2. Chapter 3 is consisting of the potential effectiveness and attempts to stop it. Chapter 4 is based on a question that can software producer still turn a profit without worrying about piracy? And finally chapter 5 explores the Business Software AllianceÃ¢â¬â¢s (BSA) Software Policy and the law. ... Free Essays on The Problem of Software Piracy Free Essays on The Problem of Software Piracy INTRODUCTION The popular conception of software piracy is that it is the activity of a minority of isolated pirate-hobbyists, copying and trading software for their personal consumption. Microsoft's allegations reflect a reality that software piracy has expanded from the bedrooms of computer wiz kids to a global trade in stolen software accounting for untold billions of dollars in lost revenue to the software industry. But Microsoft's statement is even more telling, in that it indicates the impact of software piracy goes far beyond lost income for software company shareholders. It affects lost jobs in local economies, lost tax revenues to governments, and decreased quality and increased prices for consumers whether private individuals, educational institutions, or businesses. In order to study the complex problem of software piracy, we intend to conduct a five step ethical analysis. We will begin by stating the facts. We will pay close attention to who did what to whom, how much, and how much it really costs. We will also describe the economic and legal environment of the issue. Second, we will describe the conflict. We will describe the competing higher order values. Next, we will identify the stakeholders. Beyond the immediate contestants in this conflict, there are others who have a vested interested in the outcome. Fourthly, it will be necessary to define possible options to mitigate the conflict. Finally, we'll need to describe the consequences of each possible resolution, so we might arrive at a reasonable recommendation. After discussing the ethical analysis I have described the extent and nature of piracy in chapter 2. Chapter 3 is consisting of the potential effectiveness and attempts to stop it. Chapter 4 is based on a question that can software producer still turn a profit without worrying about piracy? And finally chapter 5 explores the Business Software AllianceÃ¢â¬â¢s (BSA) Software Policy and the law. ...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Problem of Evil - Essay Example The question is viewed in the angle that if God has all the power and ability he is said to have, why is he not capable of preventing all the evil that affects the well-being of people. Furthermore, a group of people that tend to question the existence of God asks if he is truly morally perfect; and if he is, why does not he do anything in relation to controlling the bad things that happen. These questions conflict with the firm belief of the orthodox theist. The theist believes there is a perfect God who is in control of everything that happens in this world (Michael 324). The other significant issue employed in the logical problem argument is that it is impossible for some of the statements to be true. One such statement indicates that God is omnipotent. This statement simply means that God is all-powerful (Michael 324). The other statement that cause question is that God is omniscient (Michael 324). This statement means that God is all-knowing. Moreover, another statement that ten ds to raise various questions states that God is perfectly good (Michael 324). The final statement that develops various questions on this issue is that evil exists. Some people in the society support the above statements, but they tend to raise various contradictions in relation to the logical problem argument (Michael 326). ... This is because he would have the power of controlling them. The other contradiction that emerges states that if God is perfectly good, he is supposed to play a crucial role in making sure that people he created do not suffer. This simply means that he would not allow any evil to happen. Moreover, the other contradiction states that, if evil truly exists, there is a high probability to the claim that the abovementioned statements are not true. This means that God is not omnipotent, omniscient, or perfectly good. On the other hand, theists argue that people perform evil because they choose to do so on the basis of the free will inherent in them; and, as God needs people to love him Ã¢â¬â that is, to do good in his name Ã¢â¬â on the basis of their free choice, he does not force does them to do good Ã¢â¬â he does not need robots. So, universe and humans have been created as good by God; afterwards, it was the free will that, having chosen to disobey God, brought evil into man a nd the world. The Evidential Argument The evidential argument supports the fact there is some known evidence of evil that truly indicates that God does not exist (Rowe & Nick 163). However, unlike the logical argument based on the contradiction between the existence of evil and the existence of God, evidential argument takes a different move. The argument tries to demonstrate there might be no God considering the existence of various forms and kinds of evil (Rowe & Nick 166). Moreover, the evidential argument takes into consideration for how long evil has been happening on the Earth. Various issues related to evil illustrate there are things beyond human control (Murray n.p). This means that human beings perform unacceptable things, and they are
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Public Relations Plan - Essay Example The College height is to create a competitive private sector, which accommodates the diverse academic fields that the world can offer. Our institution boasts of lodging seven schools in its park. The present faculties are growing to put up with the blissful near future our college is set to thrive in it. As an institution, we believe we are growing from the nugget of a small private college that was to a multi-national academic footprint. The history of this park, where the vast buildings of this college sit; have an olden times of a long tradition of education, and magnificent achievement. The institution will grow from the well re-known London Zoo it harbors to a better academic institution with distinction (Duhe, 2007:21). The presidential visit provides us with a ripe time to highlight what the institution boasts of and what it can offer. Like every other Educational Institution, this possibility of a stately visit lays our grounds to grow in the eyes of the world. The few minute s of grace and honor presented to us by the president calls for proper channeling for the benefit of the entire Regent College. It is an opportunity that opens us to the international focus. RegentÃ¢â¬â¢s College, which has grown into a multi-disciplinary campus community, will rise up to the pinnacle of the seven world-renowned schools if we utilize the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s visit amicably. This public relation plan efforts divines the event goals: the presidential visit to serve as a friendraiser for the institution. As an academic community, we would like to harvest as many beneficiaries globally to our institution as possible. This in return will increase the scholarsÃ¢â¬â¢ attendance, inform new global audience, in better way educate, and inform our public. Planning and programming Audience Having drawn seven successful colleges in its Villa Park grounds, the presidential visit should attract not only the internal scholars but also the international community. The president wi ll address a range of audience who will substantially benefit. RegentÃ¢â¬â¢s fraternity is bound to witness a tumult of internal audience. From this view, we will have full attendance of the internal scholars, parents and guardians, kids and teaching staff (Watson, 2007:12). Every faculty will also parade its staff and the personnelÃ¢â¬â¢s owing to its success. The speech is destined to address the uncommon path of its success and the possible reason for its unmatched itinerary. The internal audience will keenly want to hear their stake in comparison to the other international academic community. The College has preserved enough space as well for the external audience. The presidential speech will be a reason for the general public, volunteer groups and charity organizations. All this, being put into place; is to highlight the expansiveness of the historical park and its viability to develop still further. The potential and existing founders and commissioners, service users, pol itical and professional stakeholders expected to gather at RegentÃ¢â¬â¢s College will form part of the multitude the president will address. They will be all in not to listen to eloquent American president, but also to listen a powerful person speak of their own Regent College. Key messages The presidents speak will be key to the public. His messages must communicate in order to reach the
Monday, November 18, 2019
To change the culture of the Baltimore Police Department - Research Paper Example Indeed prompt restructuring of the institutional framework governing the activities of police officers is needed. However, the commissioner and his team of experts are going to be faced with a number of challenges, prime of which is going to be dealing with the deep rooted culture of institutional racism among the police officers, which has been passed on from one generation to the other. Police departments have over the years adopted policing that is racially biased to such an extent that even African American police officers correlate the concept of crime with African Americans, and are more inclined to be suspicious of a fellow African American committing a crime than a Caucasian civilian. This is evidenced by the fact that of the six police officers charged with the murder of Freddy Gray, an African American youth, half of them were African Americans as well. According to Levine et al., the tactics employed by the police gradually enhance racial bias among the police officers, even those that were initially unbiased. Police officers are urged to intensely patrol the unprivileged neighbourhoods comprised mainly of African Americans, where crime is likely to be higher, which is a by-product of poverty. Therefore, due to their constant presence in black neighbourhoods, police officers record higher arrests in these neighbourhoods, further perpetuating the notion that African Americans are criminals and contributes to police officers associating crime with black civilians. In addition, in the past, local police departments used to receive federal grants to motivate local officers to make drug related arrests, a crime that is a by-product of the prevalent poverty among the black community. Deprogramming police officers to stop associating crime with African Americans is going to be very hard for Commissioner Batts (Levine,
Friday, November 15, 2019
Concepts on pilgrimage as a social process To what extent do Turners concepts of liminality and communitas cast light on pilgrimage as a social process? The concepts of liminality and comunitas is evanescent, like a wisp of smoke in the wind. (Shure, 2005) It attempts to achieve some formalization of a social process in a theoretically perspective, though academically this can be achieved; it is very hard to master the full and in-depth concept of the pilgrimage. As all academic essays require the clear and standard definition of the question, Turners concepts will subsequently be explained and furthermore the meaning behind both the pilgrimage and social process will be dealt with in detail. Turner draws on concepts of Van Genneps model of rites of passage; liminality is a state of transition argued by Turner, it is neither here nor there; they are betwixt and between the positions assigned and arrayed by law, custom, convention, and ceremonial. (Turner, 1969, p. 95) The attempt of the essay will show how the liminality iden tifies itself as period of transition with the social process of a pilgrimage, identify the equality and communitas will attempt to illustrate the process of a pilgrimage, however is structure truly lost during a pilgrimage and what is the concept of a social process and does a pilgrimage really fit into this definition, is a pilgrimage one of equality and individuality or that of a structured formation or a social experience. The rite of passage, focuses on the fact that a member of a group neither belongs to the group she was a part of or the group she will belong to after the luminal stage has been completed. A typical liminal stage can be seen as the child between becoming an adult and staying a child, puberty as a liminal stage in every individual persons own life pilgrimage. (Turner V. E., 1978) Continuing with the notion of liminal periods one can observe that in Mary Douglas Purity and Danger, illustrates that the individual is a polluting force on the external groups as liminal individuals are of no status, insigniakinship position, nothing to demarcate them structurally (Turner V. , The forst of symbols: Aspects of Ndembu ritual, 1967, p. 98) Liminality, In the use of Van Genneps model of the three, Turner illustrates the phases of the ritual, the ritual is an catalyst and exemplifies the transitional period. The transitional period is identified as the liminal period. (Turner V. , 1967, p. 94) S eclusion from everyday life is a typical consequence to the liminal period which is the attempt to remove the individual from the society, subsequently forcing the individual into an interior pilgrimage of development of self. The application of classification is often used, in doing so this continues the transition and the removal of previous identity, furthermore denoting the status of transition. Turner develops this concept further in the ambiguity that is suggested, the concept of seclusion, and the non identification of the individual of gender or class. Turner continues to suggest the equality of this transitional period however many anthropologist are hesitant to apply this to an overall spectrum as in various societies the formation of structure is still imposed. (Turner V. , 1967) Turners three phase concept is simplistic in concept and difficult in application, phase one being the communication of sacra, where secret symbols are communicated to the ritual subjects in the form of exhibitions of sacred articles, actions, and instructions; the symbols represent the unity and continuity of the community. This then transcends into the liminal period of ludic deconstruction (Deflem, 1991, p. 13) and then subsequently the recombination of the individual; Turner develops on this and we move into the phase three, which is the removal of all social structure and what is left is solely the authority of the instructor and aim of the ritual. (Turner V. E., 1978) This phase three fuelled Turner into formalising the concept of Communitas as the identification of one. Anti-structure and Communitas are blood brothers in the opposition to structure, Turner clearly notes that communitas is present within in a liminal stage when structure is not present (Turner V. , 1969, pp. 94-96) as criticised above Turner clearly identifies this to be present within a period of liminality in a ritual process. The removal of all social elements and the exclusion from this constitutes a community bond, one of human kindness; constituting this ritual communitas of individuals in a separate transition society such as the concept of limbo between heaven and hell, between life and death. Turner further explains communitas in the Ritual Process, explaining that they refer to two further modalities of society. (Turner V. , Pilgrimage and communitas, 1974) A Dialectic process between various communitas, a general view of equality of individuals (later works such as Eade argue against this concept) and that of the structured individuals in a hierarchical system such as in t he Hindu religion. The Dialectic has been used throughout time such as in Revolutions and the maximization of communitas provokes maximization of structure, which in turn produces revolutionary strivings for renewed communitus. (Turner V. , 1969, p. 129) Communitas is observed as something that is a phase in a process of a ritual not something that will continue after the process has been completed as the fate of any type of communitas is inevitably a decline and fall into structure and law (Turner V. , 1969, p. 132), after which a new form of communitas may rise again. (Turner V. , Pilgrimage and communitas, 1974, p. 282) The concept of a pilgrimage and the community are centred to many scholarly debates, Eade and Sallnow question the role of the pilgrimage in sustaining or negating the social structure. (Sallnow, 1981) In following onto the concept that is discussed, the contrast to Marxist understanding to the pilgrimage as a structural maintenance juxtaposed with Turners pilgrimage concept of spontaneous communitas. Therefore in discussion of the experience does it not bind one to the larger concept of a community? (Eade J. a., 1991, p. 5) The pilgrimage is an area of anthropology that had lacked any in-depth focus within the field till Turners Image and Pilgrimage in Christian Culture and when formalising concepts on the pilgrimage one is prone to focus on the most powerful rituals performed by religious members and not necessarily the simplistic rituals of everyday life Eade Coleman suggest that pilgrimage has been neglected due to this assertion of a pilgrimage of a liminal nature, and that of a daily life furthermore suggesting that a pilgrimage is something of extraordinary nature such as the pilgrimage to Mecca, a pilgrimage to a holy shrine Why in this definition has pilgrimage has been removed from everyday life and imposed on that of a religious ritual background, one could suggest that the simplistic notion of going in search of a new pair of shoes or a job is a pilgrimage of the individual. In doing so one is removing themselves from the pre-persona and transition into the new entity and within this liminal stage they are neither. (Eade, 2004) Though Turner states that the individual accounts such as documents or oral narratives of the personal experiences allow us to envisage the social process of a pilgrimage, subsequently suggesting that even though a pilgrimage maybe an interior one between the divine or one or a social community to Mecca, a pilgrimage none the less is a social process. The pilgrimage as a social process is formed on the symbolic and structural elements, directly important when considering the apparent or lack of structure, anti-structure, communitas, and liminality. (Turner V. , 1974) (Turner V. , Pilgrimage and communitas, 1974) Turner observes structure as a more or less distinctive arrangement of mutually dependent institutions and the institutional organization of social positions and/or actors which they imply. (Turner V. , 1974, p. 272) Therefore in such pilgrimages as Muktinath in Nepal such social relations as caste cause the formation of distance and ine quality (Turner V. , 1974, p. 272) (Edwards, 1972) That religious pilgrimage serves to highlight social principles which are idiosyncratic to a particular religious system (Messerschmidt, 1980) Most of Turners work was based on the Christianity bases of a pilgrimage as a result communitas behaviour was expectedinherent principles and idealistic expectations (Turner V. E., 1978) though juxtaposed with the pilgrimage of Hinduism, it is very much a contradiction as a Hindu society is hierarchical and subsequently even though through transition this structured formation is enforced. In relation to the question being addressed, this example illustrates Turners specific concepts of liminality and communitas do not act coherently throughout all religious pilgrimages. Even though structure plays an element in this example of a pilgrimage. Pilgrimage does not inherently maintain or remove the structure, though Starke and Finke suggest that it rather strengthens the bonds between the individual to a symbolic community. Therefore even though Me sserchmidt suggests that structure is within the liminal stage and subsequently communitas does not exist, could not suggest that the symbolic bond that is being achieved is subsequently causing a communitus that exists in a greater place. (Stark, 2000) If we look at the Hajj, it is one of the largest and most well known religious pilgrimages to date, that brings pilgrims back into the time of the Prophets and into the utopian-like society that previously existed. This pilgrimage is international, members of Islam ascend Mecca to fulfil a once in a life connection to a spiritual community, it is a pilgrimage of the individual however a social process which will forever be linked into history, with the notion of communitus one could further suggest that the linking with a spiritual holy place one is not just linking to a communitus of the present but that of the past and future. If all are equal at this period of time and structure therefore the communitus above time. (McCarter, 2005 ) Turners concepts of liminality and communitas cast a light on the social process of a pilgrimage in some specific notions. It has been clear that Turner has centred all research majorly on a Christianity stance and subsequently foreshowing other religious pilgrimages that actually do not have the removal of the structure within the liminal stage and therefore the inherent structure is transposed from the pre to post formations of the individual. As the question directly asks to what extent does Turners concepts cast light, it can be seen that metaphorically Turner has been the lighthouse to the development of anthropology of the pilgrimage; however inevitably with the development of theories, Turners concepts notwithstanding will always foreground others. Though as Modern development requires less need for lighthouses, so do the concepts of Turner no longer stand alone with theories of social process and pilgrimage. Turner illustrates that ritual is a response to a societys demand bu t that is actively involved in the human interaction and meaning. His actions and concepts are far from static. (Deflem, 1991) Furthermore supported in new research of John Eade, one can see that within Turners concepts the expression of a pilgrimage as something that is not a daily process has once again cast a shadow on the mundane concepts of a pilgrimage. One, can see that the direct social understanding of a pilgrimage is that of a religious one; the search for the divine inspiration and where miracles once happened, still happen, and may happen again (Turner V. E., 1978, p. 6)